OK, I have an idea to make a list of the champions which can generally counter other champions in a 1v1 lane, for example in ranked if you see the other team has picked a certain champion you could counter pick him with a champion that naturally does well against them. Here are some of my opinions for counter picks:
Zilean counter picks WarWick - reason: WW ultimate makes sure your team can pick one off, Zilean can just ultimate the person WW ultimates.
Caitlynn counter picks Vlad - reason: Her long auto attack range can keep him away from transfusion health regen.
Swain counter picks Ryze - reason: Recently saw this in the game's yesterday, Swain can dominate Ryze with his long ranged Snare and combo and Swain is generally a very stong laner.
Some Ive seen and i agree with:
Soraka counter picks Karthus - reason her ultimate scales with twich the AP and Half the cooldown as Karthus's
Katarina counter picks A team with no CC - reason: If her ultimate isnt shut down in a team fight with Stuns she will do alot of damage.
Swain counters picks Vlad - reason: Not sure to be honest he just seems to dominate him and at Level 6 Vlad will be unable to harras
Tristana or Caitlyn counter picks Veigar - reson: It's all about their range and escapes. Veigar will have a hard time landing a stun AND since they are both ad he won't be dealing extra damage with his ultimate.
Irelia counter picks Squishy Solo Top - reason: She can junp onto them and dominate them at close combat, also she can vamp HP to stop harrass
LeBlanc counter picks Squishy AP casters
Feel free to add to the list! ↓↓↓